Solar busbars. How are busbars used in photovoltaic panels?

bus bars in photovoltaics

Photovoltaics and other sources of renewable energy are a great opportunity today to reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

Many entrepreneurs want to contribute to changing the ways of energy generation for the better by investing in modern solar panels. At Electris' machinery park, we prepare components and bus bars, which are very often used in this sector.

Solar busbars in photovoltaic panels - using aluminum and copper

Both copper and aluminum are energy-saving materials, so it's no surprise that they are used in photovoltaic panels. Current arrays, or busbars, made of them can be bent, twisted, punched, stamped, drilled - simply shaped as desired. Busbars distribute energy efficiently, so they are used not only in photovoltaic modules, but also in the construction of current cabinets and switchboards. They are used to connect transformers to the power grid. They are also installed along railroad tracks, where they supply energy to vehicles.

Development of renewable energy sources in Europe

Why did the European Union set its sights on promoting renewable energy sources, i.e. solar, hydro, wind or biofuels, among others, some time ago? The answer seems obvious: because they make it possible not only to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which will have a very beneficial effect on the environment, but also to become independent of the fossil fuel markets, namely gas and oil.

Renewable energy sources are firstly cheap, and secondly infinite. Another advantage they have is cost stability - the prices of oil, gas and other raw materials can change very dynamically, and we have no influence on these fluctuations.

One of the most popular sources of renewable energy are photovoltaic panels, which convert solar energy into electricity. Both monocrystalline and polycrystalline panels work well both for private use and for huge photovoltaic farms.

The development of technology and betting on the efficiency of photovoltaic panels have made investors want to use the best components on the market and use innovative solutions. One of the basic components in photovoltaic panels are busbars, also known as bus bars or (English) bus bars.

Busbars in photovoltaic panels

Where busbars are used in photovoltaics components

To understand the structure and function of busbars, we need to start with the photovoltaic cell (photo-cell/solar cell). This is a semiconductor that converts the sun's energy into electricity. The semiconductor properties are achieved by using crystalline silicon to build first-generation cells. When the sun's rays fall on the modules and the cells on them, a photovoltaic effect occurs, which generates energy.

The cells in photovoltaic panels or modules are connected to each other by a thin metal strip, which conducts the photoelectric current generated. Silicon photovoltaic cells have two layers - front and back. On both are busbars, which are just busbars in the form of thin horizontal paths. Their role is to collect charge from the entire wafer and transfer it to the vertical paths.

Modern bus bars - the number of paths matters

Photovoltaic cells have designations with the number of bus bars, such as 3 BB, 4 BB. How many bus bars are in a single module is of great importance for the cell's resistance to micro-breaks. The consequence of such damage is the loss of power of the entire photovoltaic panel. This, of course, generates costs.

Micro-cracks can be caused by external factors (snow, wind, temperature) or already at the stage of production, transportation or assembly. How do busbars prevent cell damage? They divide them into several parts, so a crack will cover only a small part of the photocell. Thus, the power of the panel will decrease only a little. In other words - the more busbars, the greater the efficiency of photovoltaic panels.

In the past, cells with two bus bars were called standard technology. Today, typical silicon cells are 3, 4 and even 5 BB models. Investing in more busbars in solar cells required modernizing production lines, but resulted in savings in the long run.

At Electris, we make bus bars from aluminum and copper materials of various sizes. As a rule, they are of uniform rail construction, but we can also shape them in any way we like, such as bending, twisting or punching holes. Our machinery allows us to produce details of any size - the smallest are a dozen millimeters, and the largest exceed 3,000 mm. We analyze and prepare each inquiry of our customers to meet all expectations.

FAQ - Use of bus bars in photovoltaics

What is the application of bus bars in photovoltaics?
What is the significance of the number of busbars in a photovoltaic panel?
Solar busbars in photovoltaics from Electris
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